In Republic country of India and the Constitution of India has declared Hindi language which is written in Devanagari script and English as an official language. Hindi and English are used for official functions of parliament proceedings, judiciary, communications between the Central Government and State government. The Constitution of India also have given freedom and powers to specify their own state official language(s) through legislation and so there are 22 formally recognized languages in India. As under the provision of Article 345 of the Constitution of Republic India, has provides that the general assembly of a State might by law adopt any language or additional of the languages in use within the State because the language to be used for official functions of the State.
An official language could be a language that's gives a special status, in a specific country, state, or alternative jurisdiction. Generally a country's official language refers to the language used among government (e.g., courts, parliament, and administration). Since "the means that of expression of people can't be modified by any law", the term "official language" doesn't generally talk to the language utilized by people or country, however by its government.
India is a home to many hundreds of languages. Most Indians speak a language related to the families of the Indo-Aryan, branch of Indo-European, the Dravidian, the Austroasiatic (Munda), or the Sino-Tibetan language, with some languages of the mountain range still unclassified. The Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. (SIL) Ethnologue lists 461 languages for India, of which 447 are alive of which 14 languages have been extinct.
The Eighth Schedule to the Constitution consists of the following 22 languages which are as below;
|Sr. No.||Indian Constitution 8th Schedule Languages||State|
||Assamese||Assamese is an official state language of Assam state. It is also spoken in other states of India i.e. Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.|
||Bengali||Bengali is an official state language of West Bengal state. It is also spoken in other states of India i.e. Tripura, Jharkhand, Assam, Andaman and Nicobar Islands.|
||Gujarati||Gujarati is an official state language of Gujarat state. It is also spoken in other states of India i.e. Daman and Diu (U.T.), Dadra Nagar Haveli (U.T.) and Maharashtra in (Mumbai)|
||Hindi||Hindi is an official country language of India. It is widely spoken in states of India i.e. Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and other parts of India.|
||Kannada||In Year 2008 Government of India announced Kannada as Classical Language of India. It is also spoken in other states of India i.e. Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Telangana.|
||Kashmiri or Koshur||Kashmiri or Koshur is an official state language of Jammu and Kashmir state. It is only spoken in Jammu and Kashmir and region of Chenab and Kashmir Valley.|
||Konkani||Kokani is a minority language which is spoken in Konkan region, which includes the states of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka, and some parts of Kerala, and the other parts of Union Territories of Dadra-Nagar Haveli and Diu-Daman|
||Malayalam||In Year 2013 Government of India announced Malayalam as Classical Language of India, it is state language of Kerla, there are few speakers in the Nilgiris, Kanyakumari and Coimbatore Districts in Tamil Nadu and Dakshina Kannada and the Kodagu District in Karnataka.|
||Manipuri||Manipuri is an official state language of Manipur state. It is only spoken in Manipuri language is also known as Kangleipak or Sanaleibak|
||Marathi||Marathi is an official state language of Maharashtra state. It is also spoken in other states of India i.e. Andhra Pradesh, Dadra-Nagar Haveli, Diu-Daman, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Telangana.|
||Nepali||Nepali is an official language of country Nepal, but in India it is listed within the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India. Spoken in Darjeeling district of West Bengal State.|
||Odia||In Year 2014 Government of India announced Odia as Classical Language of India, Odia is official state language Odisha, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Telangana and West Bengal.|
||Punjabi||Punjabi is official state language of Punjab state. It is also spoken in other states of India Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi|
||Sanskrit||In Year 2005 Government of India announced Sanskrit as Classical Language of India. In an ancient time Sanskrit was the main language in Hindustan, basically used by scholars. Even as on date it spoken by Hindu priests during religious ceremonies. If you known language such as Bengali, Hindi or Marathi then it is very easy to understand. Sanskrit is optional language in school. All over the world people try to preserve their language, then why not in India. In India only 1% people speak and write Sanskrit.|
||Sindhi||Sindhi is a language which is spoken in Sindh province which is in Pakistan. In India it is spoken in few states of Gujrat in Kutch region and there are few speakers in Ulhasnagar district of Maharashtra.|
||Tamil||In Year 2004 Government of India announced Tamil as Classical Language of India, Tamil is official language of Tamil Nadu state. It is also spoken in other states of India, Puducherry (U.T.), and there are few speakers in Kerala and Andaman and Nicobar Islands (U.T.), Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.|
||Telugu||In Year 2008 Government of India announced Telugu as Classical Language of India.|
||Urdu||Urdu is a language which is spoken in Pakistan. In India it is spoken in few states of India i.e. Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, New Delhi (U.T.), Telangana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.|
||Bodo||Bodo is official state language of Assam state. Bodo has been given special constitutional status in India. Bodo or Mech language is the Sino-Tibetan language spoken by Bodo people north-eastern parts of India and Nepal.|
||Santhali||Santali is a language in the Munda subfamily of Austroasiatic languages. Upto 19th century Santali language was oral spoken only. Santalias language has been given special constitutional status in India, mostly spoken in other states i.e. Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Mizoram , Odisha, Tripura, and West Bengal.|
||Maithili||Maithili language is a member of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. Maithili language has been given special constitutional status in India, mostly spoken in the districts of Madhubani, Darbhanga, Samastipur, Muzaffarpur, Sitamarhi, Begusarai, Purnia, Katihar, Kishanganj, sheohar, Bhagalpur, Madhepura, Araria, Supaul and Saharsa districts in northern Bihar state.|
||Dogri||Dogri language is a member of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. Dogri language has been given special constitutional status in India, mostly spoken in the region of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and in northern part of Punjab state.|
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